How humans think varies dramatically across contexts. Thinking can change based on our goals, motivations, and propensities, as they develop across infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and in relation to our physical, social, and cultural environments. How can we understand these dramatic variations in thinking? How can we build on this understanding to support adaptive thinking and development? To address these questions, we investigate the cognitive, neural, and computational processes that support thinking and variations in thinking across diverse contexts.